Why are we part of the PHOENIX Initiative?

On 28 June 2019, the Dutch government presented a climate agreement. It contains a set of measures drawn up in consultation with various parties across Dutch society in the joint combat against climate change. The carbon sources of the future are no longer fossil based. There are only three sources of renewable carbon. Apart from renewable carbon from recycling of already existing plastics and other organic chemistry products and renewable carbon gained from all types of biomass, the third source is CO2 from of fossil point sources (while they still exist) as well as from permanently biogenous point sources and direct air capture.

The Dutch government supports CO2 valorisation where this contributes to CO2-emissions reduction and competitiveness. CO2 valorisation is seen as an important opportunity for Dutch industry, especially for the steel and chemical industry.

The Netherlands Enterprise Agency participates in Phoenix on behalf of the Dutch Government.

What do we do in CO2 valorisation?

In the Netherlands, CO2 valorisation is in commercial operation today.

The most important application in terms of volume is the use of CO2 in greenhouses. Six hundred ktons of CO2 are reused annually for this purpose. Greenhouse farmers want to convert to cheaper and more sustainable sources of CO2 than burning natural gas, especially in summer. There are two significant pipeline networks. More than 20 organisations have joined ‘CO2 smart grid’, which promotes CO2 capture, transport, utilization and permanent underground storage. Furthermore, waste incinerator Twence captures CO2 for the production of NaHCO3 for the fuel gas cleaning.

Research and innovation on CO2-valorisation is one of the priority areas in the mission-driven innovation policy for industry. The public-private collaboration on electrochemical conversion and materials (ECCM) foresees that CCU technology will be applied at regional level in the Netherlands from 2030 onwards, using CO2 in the electrochemical conversion process.

The Netherlands is a party in the SET Plan CCUS Implementation Plan. It is also involved in ACT ( The 8 ongoing ACT CCUS projects also include valorization research. The Netherlands is also a member of ECCSEL, which makes available research infrastructure on CCUS at a European scale. The Netherlands is also collaborating in CSLF and other international organisations related to CCUS.

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy

Natalya Rijk
+31 6 5017 6526

Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO)

Edith Engelen
+31 6 3049 3288